Madrid Protocol of 1885 cedes all rights of the Sulu over Sabah

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The Madrid Protocol of 1885 is an agreement between Great Britain, Germany and Spain to recognize the sovereignty of Spain over the Sulu Archipelago as well as the limit of Spanish influence in the region (Articles I and II). The most interesting point to note that under the agreement (specifically, Article III), Spain as the colonial power ruling the Philippines islands — including the Mindanao and Sulu areas — clearly relinquishes all claims to Borneo. Continue reading